Details may appear on any of the previous sheets, or may be collected to appear on detail sheets. These details may include construction details that show how the components of the building fit together. These details may also include millwork drawings or other interior details. Many aspects of a building must be scheduled on larger projects. These include schedules for windows, doors, hardware, landscaping elements, rooms, and areas. More aspects are, for example: While smaller projects may only show structural information on the plans and sections, larger projects have separate sheets describing the structure of the building.
Mechanical drawings show plumbing and heating systems. Again, many electrical layouts are shown on the floor plans, however larger projects have this information on separate sheets. What is CAD? Computer-Aided design CAD is the use of computer technology to aid in the design and particularly the drafting technical drawing and engineering drawing of a part or product, including entire buildings. It is both a visual or drawing and symbol-based method of communication whose conventions are particular to a specific technical field.
Drafting is the integral communication of technical or engineering drawings and is the industrial arts sub-discipline that underlies all involved technical endeavors. In representing complex, three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional drawings, these objects have traditionally been represented by three projected views at right angles.
Current CAD software packages range from 2D vector-based drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modelers. Modern CAD packages can also frequently allow rotations in three dimensions, allowing viewing of a designed object from any desired angle, even from the inside looking out. Some CAD software is capable of dynamic mathematic modeling, in which case it may be marketed as CADD - computer-aided design and drafting.
CAD is used in the design of tools and machinery used in the manufacture of components, and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings, from small residential types houses to the largest commercial and industrial structures hospitals and factories. CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computer-aided technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened design cycle.
CAD enables designers to lay out and develop work on screen, print it out and save it for future editing, saving time on their drawings. CAD Software Technologies Originally software for CAD systems was developed with computer languages such as Fortran, but with the advancement of object-oriented programming methods this has radically changed.
Typical modern parametric feature based modeler and freeform surface systems are built around a number of key C programming language modules with their own APIs. A geometry constraint engine may also be employed to manage the associative relationships between geometry, such as wireframe geometry in a sketch or components in an assembly. Unexpected capabilities of these associative relationships have led to a new form of prototyping called digital prototyping. In contrast to physical prototypes, which entail manufacturing time and material costs, digital prototypes allow for design verification and testing on screen, speeding time-to-market and decreasing costs.
As technology evolves in this way, CAD has moved beyond a documentation tool representing designs in graphical format into a more robust designing tool that assists in the design process. Generally no special hardware is required with the possible exception of a good graphics card, depending on the CAD software used.
However for complex product design, machines with high speed and possibly multiple CPUs and large amounts of RAM are recommended. CAD was an application that benefited from the installation of a numeric coprocessor especially in early personal computers. The human-machine interface is generally via a computer mouse but can also be via a pen and digitizing graphics tablet.
Some systems also support stereoscopic glasses for viewing the 3D model. Using CAD CAD is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question.
There are several different types of CAD. Each of these different types of CAD systems require the operator to think differently about how he or she will use them and he or she must design their virtual components in a different manner for each.
There are many producers of the lower-end 2D systems, including a number of free and open source programs. These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss over scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting, since these can be adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft.
Each line has to be manually inserted into the drawing. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot have features directly added to it, such as holes. The operator approaches these in a similar fashion to the 2D systems, although many 3D systems allow using the wireframe model to make the final engineering drawing views. Basic three-dimensional geometric forms prisms, cylinders, spheres, and so on have solid volumes added or subtracted from them, as if assembling or cutting real-world objects.
Two-dimensional projected views can easily be generated from the models. Basic 3D solids don't usually include tools to easily allow motion of components, set limits to their motion, or identify interference between components.
The objects and features created are adjustable. Any future modifications will be simple, difficult, or nearly impossible, depending on how the original part was created. One must think of this as being a "perfect world" representation of the component. If a feature was intended to be located from the center of the part, the operator needs to locate it from the center of the model, not, perhaps, from a more convenient edge or an arbitrary point, as he could when using "dumb" solids.
Parametric solids require the operator to consider the consequences of his actions carefully. What may be simplest today could be worst case tomorrow. Some software packages provide the ability to edit parametric and non-parametric geometry without the need to understand or undo the design intent history of the geometry by use of direct modeling functionality.
This ability may also include the additional ability to infer the correct relationships between selected geometry e. These kind of non history based systems are called Explicit Modellers. The first Explicit Modeling system was introduced to the world at the end of 80's by Hewlett-Packard under the name SolidDesigner. Assemblies usually incorporate tools to represent the motions of components, set their limits, and identify interference. The tool kits available for these systems are ever increasing; including 3D piping and injection mold designing packages.
Mid range software are integrating parametric solids more easily to the end user: Top end systems offer the capabilities to incorporate more organic, aesthetics and ergonomic features into designs Catia, GenerativeComponents. Freeform surface modelling is often combined with solids to allow the designer to create products that fit the human form and visual requirements as well as they interface with the machine. The Effects of CAD Starting in the late s, the development of readily affordable CAD programs that could be run on personal computers began a trend of massive downsizing in drafting departments in many small to mid-size companies.
As a general rule, one CAD operator could readily replace at least three to five drafters using traditional methods. Additionally, many engineers began to do their own drafting work, further eliminating the need for traditional drafting departments. This trend mirrored that of the elimination of many office jobs traditionally performed by a secretary as word processors, spreadsheets, databases, etc.
Another consequence had been that since the latest advances were often quite expensive, small and even mid-size firms often could not compete against large firms who could use their computational edge for competitive purposes. Today, however, hardware and software costs have come down. Even high-end packages work on less expensive platforms and some even support multiple platforms.
CAD vendors have been effective in providing tools to lower these training costs. These tools have operated in three CAD arenas: Improved and simplified user interfaces. This includes the availability of "role" specific tailorable user interfaces through which commands are presented to users in a form appropriate to their function and expertise. Enhancements to application software. User oriented modeling options. This includes the ability to free the user from the need to understand the design intent history of a complex intelligent model.
Most CAD software at the time ran on graphics terminals connected to mainframe computers or mini-computers. AutoCAD Background In earlier releases, AutoCAD used primitive entities - such as lines, polylines, circles, arcs, and text - as the foundation for more complex objects. Modern AutoCAD includes a full set of basic solid modeling and 3D tools, but lacks some of the more advanced capabilities of solid modeling applications. Which meant better navigation when working in 3D.
Over time, it has become more easy to edit 3D models. The mental ray engine was included in rendering, it was now possible to do quality renderings.
In , Autodesk estimated the number of active DWG files to be in excess of one billion. In the past, Autodesk has estimated the total number of DWG files in existence to be more than three billion. All Autodesk software titles are available on Microsoft desktop operating systems. Versions for Unix and Macintosh were released in the s and s, but these were later dropped. The extent of localization varies from full translation of the product to documentation only.
It costs less approx. Most notably, it has no 3D modeling capabilities though it has a full suite of 3D viewing functions for looking at 3D models created in other CAD packages and does not include any programming interfaces, such as support for most 3rd party programs and does not support LISP programs. A full listing of differences is on the Autodesk website. Yes, free. Autodesk and the Autodesk Education Community genuinely believe in education. Software and cloud-based services provided without charge to Education Community members may be used solely for purposes directly related to learning, teaching, training, research or development and shall not be used for commercial, professional or any other for-profit purposes.
Educational licenses with network and cloud-based options enable you to learn almost anytime, anywhere with a team, as part of a class or on your own. Autodesk Design Academy helps students and educators explore the world of design.
Be inspired by featured articles and showcase your designs in the portfolio section. All competitions. Autodesk Certification and the Student Expert Network can help you validate skills, build experience, and boost resumes. With millions of professional users, Autodesk is a world leader in 3D design, engineering, and entertainment software for manufacturing, building and construction, and media and entertainment.
AutoCAD Architecture formerly Architectural Desktop , for example, permits architectural designers to draw 3D objects such as walls, doors and windows, with more intelligent data associated with them, rather than simple objects such as lines and circles. The data can be programmed to represent specific architectural products sold in the construction industry, or extracted into a data file for pricing, materials estimation, and other values related to the objects represented.
Additional tools allow designers to generate standard 2D drawings, such as elevations and sections, from a 3D architectural model. Similarly, Civil Design, Civil Design 3D, and Civil Design Professional allow data-specific objects to be used, allowing standard civil engineering calculations to be made and represented easily.
What is BIM? Building Information Modeling BIM is the process of generating and managing building data during its life cycle. Typically, BIM uses three-dimensional, real-time, dynamic building modeling software to increase productivity in building design and construction. The process produces the Building Information Model also abbreviated BIM , which encompasses building geometry, spatial relationships, geographic information, and quantities and properties of building components.
Origin of BIM There are two theories on the origin of the term building information modeling: The second theory claims that Professor Charles M. Eastman at Georgia Institute of Technology coined the term. This theory is based on a view that the term Building Information Model is basically the same as Building Product Model, which Professor Eastman has used extensively in his book and papers since the late s.
Nevertheless, it is agreed upon that the term was popularized by Jerry Laiserin as a common name for a digital representation of the building process to facilitate exchange and interoperability of information in digital format. Definition of BIM Building information modeling covers geometry, spatial relationships, geographic information, quantities and properties of building components for example manufacturers' details.
BIM can be used to demonstrate the entire building life cycle including the processes of construction and facility operation. Quantities and shared properties of materials can easily be extracted. Scopes of work can be isolated and defined. Systems, assemblies, and sequences are able to be shown in a relative scale with the entire facility or group of facilities. BIM is a process which goes far beyond switching to a new software.
It requires changes to the definition of traditional architectural phases and more data sharing than most architects and engineers are used to. BIM is able to achieve such improvements by modeling representations of the actual parts and pieces being used to build a building.
This is a substantial shift from the traditional computer aided drafting method of drawing with vector file based lines that combine to represent objects.
The interoperability requirements of construction documents include the drawings, procurement details, environmental conditions, submittal processes and other specifications for building quality. For example, a building owner may find evidence of a leak in his building. Rather than exploring the physical building, he may turn to his BIM and see that a water valve is located in the suspect location. He could also have in the model the specific valve size, manufacturer, part number, and any other information ever researched in the past, pending adequate computing power.
There have been attempts at creating a BIM for older, pre-existing facilities. The validity of these models will need to be monitored over time, because trying to model a building constructed in, say , requires numerous assumptions about design standards, building codes, construction methods, materials, etc. The American Institute of Architects has further defined BIM as "a model-based technology linked with a database of project information", and this reflects the general reliance on database technology as the foundation.
In the future, structured text documents such as specifications may be able to be searched and linked to regional, national, and international standards. Anticipated Future Potential of BIM BIM is currently employed by professionals on all building types from the simplest warehouse to many of the most complex new buildings, BIM design method is currently young in its development.
BIM provides the potential for a virtual information model to be handed from Design Team architects, surveyors, consulting engineers, and others to Contractor and Subcontractors and then to the Owner, each adding their own additional discipline-specific knowledge and tracking of changes to the single model.
The result is anticipated to greatly reduce the information loss that occurs when a new team takes "ownership" of the project as well as in delivering extensive information to owners of complex structures far beyond that which they are currently accustomed to having.
BIM can greatly decrease errors made by design team members and the construction team Contractors and Subcontractors by allowing the use of conflict detection where the computer actually informs team members about parts of the building in conflict or clashing, and through detailed computer visualization of each part in relation to the total building. As computers and software become more capable of handling more building information, this will become even more pronounced than it is in current design and construction projects.
This error reduction is a great part of cost savings realized by all members of a project. Reduction in time required to complete construction directly contributes to the cost savings numbers as well. It's important to realize that this decrease can only be accomplished if the models are sufficiently developed in the Design Development phase.
BIM in the USA Contractors - The Associated General Contractors and contracting firms also have developed a variety of working definition of BIM which describe it generally as "an object-oriented building development tool that utilizes 5-D modeling concepts, information technology and software interoperability to design, construct and operate a building project, as well as communicate its details. Although the concept of BIM and relevant processes are being explored by contractors, architects and developers alike, the term itself is under debate, and it is yet to be seen whether it will win over alternatives, which include: There are other data structures which are proprietary, and many have been developed by CAD firms that are now incorporating BIM into their software.
Case studies show that BIM offers: Improved visualization 2. Improved productivity due to easy retrieval of information 3. Increased coordination of construction documents 4. Embedding and linking of vital information such as vendors for specific materials, location of details and quantities required for estimation and tendering 5. Increased speed of delivery 6. Reduced costs What is Revit? Revit is the world's leading Building Information Modeling BIM software, which allows the user to design with parametric modeling and drafting elements.
In this way, Revit provides full bi-directional associativity. A change anywhere is a change everywhere, instantly, with no user interaction to manually update any view.
A BIM model contains the building's full life cycle, from concept to construction to decommissioning. Fedora Core 5……………………………………………………DVD………………….
SUSE Linux Windows Crystal XP Professional ….. Windows Server 64 Bit………………….. Sun Solaris Mac OS X v Fedora Core 6………………………………………………………. Windows Server Datacenter Edt. Windows Server Standard Edt. Windows Vista Ultimate…………. Windows XP Prof. MS-DOS 7. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 5…………………………………….. Fedora Core 7 64 Bit Processor. Open SuseLinux With SP3………………………………………….. Windows Server SP2 only…………………………………………………………..
Adobe does not provide free software to educational institutions. More detailed information is provided in the Photoshop courses and Photoshop Training Bundles. Mac users can run the software titles in Boot Camp mode. Please click here for a link of the hardware requirements for Autodesk software titles. More Content What are the system requirements?